Talk about changing the face of professional learning; teachers as self-reflective practitioners can take a few lessons from the world of sports. Athletes and sports teams will gladly go to the videotape to verify a good or bad play, critique the implementation of a play, or just review technique. Imagine if teachers consistently used that practice to study what we do and how well we do it? I know there have been times when I thought I said one thing and the persons listening to me have said, did you mean to say XYZ? My response is usually, “Yes! What confusion have I caused? Let me correct it so that you understand my expectations.”

When we are at the helm, we are so engrossed in teaching. We know our instruction is very clear regarding what we want our students to understand, do or produce. That is until we get, “Can you repeat that again?” questions, until we gaze out into the sea of confused faces looking for clearer understanding, or get a response that we really just never expected!

So why wouldn’t we want to be able to “go to the tape” to review the play-by-play? Imagine the value the tape serves in relations to our instructional practice? That is, as long as we are taping with a focus in mind. Below are my top three areas I ask teachers to consider when videotaping is their choice for self-reflection:

__Questioning:__Do I utilize higher-order questioning techniques? High cognitive demand questions invite students to explain their thinking, make new connections, describe their process, or critique other ideas. This type of questioning is needed to help students make sense of mathematics. If you need some examples here are a few NCTM higher-order question stems:

What do others think about what ___________________________ said?

Do you agree? Disagree?

Does anyone have the same answer but a different way to explain it?

- Think-time/Wait-time: After asking a question do I give students the opportunity to think before they respond or am I offering the answers and explanations to my questions? Research and data have shown that the use of student think-time and wait-time contribute significantly to improved teaching and learning in the classroom.
__Student Engagement:__Do I provide learning activities to maintain students’ attention and focus? Marzano states that student engagement is dependent upon our instructional decisions. Why not take a look at how students engage with the activities we design for learning? Do students find the activities interesting or relevant?

There are many instructional practices to consider when reflecting on your teaching. Think about your pattern for circulating among groups/students, your explanation of material or specific content, or even your pattern for calling on students. Do you consistently find yourself on one side of the room more or calling on one student more than others?

I’m curious as to what teachers do with the tape once reviewed. Is it archived or recorded over? Do you save it so that you can compare the before I recognized I did this and now here’s what I do? Here’s where I believe we can gain even more learning about our practice. Let’s take another cue specifically from football. Imagine if we exchanged our game tape with another teacher just like football teams. Now we both are growing because I am studying my colleague’s change in techniques and reflecting on my practice too. Trading videotapes requires a school culture that promotes collaboration and a sense of trust among the teachers participating. Consider being a change agent and begin the practice without waiting for an administrator to suggest it. I promise being a self-reflective practitioner will help you grow professionally.

Have you used videotaping as a practice? I would love to hear what you gained from your experience. If you have been saying you need to videotape your teaching, there’s no time like the present. I look forward to the dialogue!

]]>You must recognize that you have the ability to change the face of your professional learning. I guess of sorts; I would call it “Looking at Your Practice in the Mirror.” Why the mirror analogy? Mirrors reflect, of course. Possibly you haven’t been able to implement every single thing you learned but how are your students doing with, performing based on, or responding to what you have implemented? Has the change in your teaching practice assisted them in learning? Don’t end up like Tiger.

The questions above require you to think about and reflect on your practice. There’s the secret, “Reflection.” However, I want you to move beyond just thinking about it. I want you to write about it. Correct, I want you to begin keeping a reflective journal. Call this strategy #1 because this is a three-part series.

Journal writing has become a powerful tool in the field of education. Why? Writing forces you to think in ways to clarify ideas and modify others. When you reflect on your practice and collect information about the teaching going on in your classroom, you begin to analyze and evaluate the information you’ve collected. It’s through this exploration of your practice that you begin to change and challenge your teaching. So, reflective teaching is really a means of professional development that starts with you, in your classroom.

Well, how do you begin? You just start writing, but you have to follow some framework. Let me share the four question framework I use to get teachers started thinking about their teaching:

**Can you give me a DESCRIPTION of what occurred in class, in your lesson, or in the class discussion in detail?**A possible journal entry might look like…*I did a lesson on slope today. Instead of using the textbook, I supplemented the lesson with an activity that required the students to experiment with… They were required to identify… After holding a discussion, I then used the text to…***Can you ANALYZE your responses and your students’ response? How did you feel? How did you respond?**Possible Response:*“I was excited that most students were engaged in the lesson. One group was not as attentive. I had to remind them of the group work rules several times. They told me that they did not get the slope concept. I asked them the meaning of slope, they said, ‘rise over run’ but couldn’t give me a visual picture of what that meant or explain that it was the change in the y-intercept over the change in the x-intercept when I gave them two points. I felt anxious because I if I didn’t help them to connect the mathematics of slope with explaining it as ‘rise over run’ maybe others don’t understand slope either.***What NEW KNOWLEDGE/STRATEGIES do you have?**Here I’m asking teachers to draw some conclusions (in writing) that confirm or disprove what they know, believe, or think to be true. Possibly they are trying to implement a strategy based on an article they read or a PD session. Then possibly, they just did what they have always done, and it doesn’t seem to be effective anymore. Based on the information in question 2, the teacher thought providing more visual representations would have helped students make a connection to the meaning of “rise over run.” Question 3 gives me the opportunity to invite teachers to do some research.*What learning theories relate to the situation? To what degree is theory or research confirmed or disproved based on your experience? What conclusion can you draw from your experience? In other words,***what are the**research-based**best practices out there right now**as it relates to your experience**?****What are your FUTURE ACTIONS?**Now that the teachers know what they know, they can discuss how the experience will influence their future actions/practice.*What will you do in similar situations? How will you use this information to influence other decisions you make about teaching and learning?*

It may seem like a daunting task; however, once you get started it becomes an embedded practice. You just find yourself doing it without thinking. Don’t believe me, give it a try and let me know how it is going for you! All you have to do is pick up the pen.

**Additional Readings**:

A practical guide to the essential practice that builds better teachers.

]]>So where am I going with these wonderings? Enter PARCC testing and Deputy Commissioner Peter Shulman’s statement that, “The PARCC assessment can be used as a tool to improve classroom instruction more effectively than any previous statewide assessment” along with research by the National Network of Teachers of the Year supporting the PARCC assessment as an effective measure of academic standards compared to previous statewide assessments and we are on to something here, determining teacher effectiveness. At least that’s what we will believe here in the state of New Jersey by tripling the weight of PARCC results in teacher evaluations. Then **out of the mouth of Joshua**, my son, came this comment when I asked him how he thought he did on the PARCC math assessment for 5^{th} grade this past school year, “Mom, I had 11 questions to complete in 90 minutes. I finished before time and think I did well. I just don’t know how they are going to be able to tell what I really know about math based on only 11 questions today.” He was telling me that we need to gather more information about students’ thinking than their test performance.

My son didn’t think that he had enough opportunities to show his true understanding of math. Well, in the same sense I have felt that using the PARCC test scores as part of the teacher evaluation system won’t help show a teacher’s true effectiveness. More so, the test won’t assist teachers in reflecting on their instructional practice since it only occurs once a year. So what will?

Well, let’s begin with Math Leaders working with teachers to assist them in creating assessments that will allow them the opportunity to collect data about student learning, student thinking, and their own teaching methods. If we assist teachers in understanding how to promote meaningful opportunities for collaboration and discourse; teachers can do more kid watching and listening to gain immediate feedback that informs their daily practice. Here are some examples of authentic assessment methods that delve more into student thinking:

**Performance Tasks-**Research suggests that students show greater interest/engagement and levels of learning when they are required to organize facts around major concepts and actively construct their own understanding of the concepts. This type of assessment allows students to collaborate in the problem-solving process through completing some activity that requires them to produce a product. Imagine giving students a performance task that requires them to act as architects to show their understanding of area and perimeter. I did! How may designs do you think we had? Students got to use their creativity and also explain the reasoning behind their design.**Open-ended/response questions-**These questions allow students to explain or justify their answers and/or strategies as a brief written or oral answer, a mathematical solution, a drawing, a diagram, chart or graph. Ron Pelfrey, a Mathematics Consultant, explains open-ended questions or problems as having more than one correct answer and more than one approach/strategy to arrive at the answer. While open-response questions or problems may only have one correct answer or one strategy to obtain the answer. Both questioning techniques, however; provide teachers with the ability to assess students’ analytical abilities and processing skills. This is one of my favorite questions. Everyone says they have the answer to until I advise that they must use drawings, diagrams or charts to explain how they arrived at their answer.**Portfolios-**This is a collection of student work, called artifacts, that evidences the student’s mastery of skills and/or applied knowledge. The work may be collected over the course of a marking period or throughout the course of the year. A process oriented portfolio allows for the student and teacher to identify the learner’s growth given it contains work from the beginning middle and end of a learning unit and requires the learner to reflect on his/her work. Process oriented portfolios are most common at the elementary level because of the reflective element and the focus on the learner’s growth.

Product oriented portfolios are more collections of the student’s best work. While the teacher may set parameters around the quality of the artifacts. The student collects all his/her work during the stated time frame before selecting the pieces he/she deems the highest in quality. A self-reflection for each artifact regarding why the pieces represent the best work is usually included. Product oriented portfolios are most common at the secondary level possibly due to the student’s ability to evaluate the work and reflect deeply on the reason for selecting it. I think having work in the portfolio that addresses the Sternberg Intelligences in would be great.

Wrapping up…if an eleven-year-old felt that the PARCC assessment didn’t have enough questions to truly help his teacher gauge his understanding of mathematics, why are we, the adults, trying to hang our hats on it as the tool that can determine teacher effectiveness tied to student growth? Let’s spend more time supporting teachers in their instructional practice so that they can effectively teach the standards and design the meaningful tasks that allow students to exhibit their true understanding of the mathematics. Would love to hear your thoughts.

Here are a few other reads by colleagues who also believe that curriculum, instruction and formative assessment truly make the difference in a child’s learning:

PARCC is great because PARCC is great– Eric Milou

PARKING the RHETORIC on PARCC– Chris Tienken

__References__

Pelfrey, D. (2000). Open-Ended Questions for Mathematics. Lexington, KY: ARSI

Teacher Vision: Portfolio Types https://www.teachervision.com/teaching-methods-and-management/experimental-education/4530.html

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As we are on the cusp of entering the 2016-2017 academic school year I am constantly thinking about what professional learning experiences I will provide this school year to improve math leaders pedagogical content knowledge. If you teach, I am sure you can agree that teaching is complex work. If you are a teacher/leader of Mathematics, it becomes even more complex work because the teaching must be engaging, the lesson must require some struggle in addition to, providing students with the opportunity to reason and think critically about their work and the work of their peers. What’s most important to note is that we, as math leaders, are required to stay abreast of the advances in our field and in pedagogy. Lifelong learning is inherent to teaching. As math leaders, supporting this learning is the first and foremost obligation of instructional leadership.

So what professional learning will I provide this year to ensure a culture of professional inquiry where teacher learning is maximized? This year before I begin to promote the traditional approach of workshops I’m going to try a different approach. I going to consider conducting focused and structured conversations around math; where teachers are required to think deeply about their work and reflect on their instructional practices as it relates to their students’ ability to problem solve, reason about math and the thinking of their peers, and/or apply the math in everyday life situations using the appropriate tools. This concept of “talking about the teaching and learning of math” as a reflective practitioner stands to be the most powerful tool to promote teacher learning, if implemented effectively.

Just as with attempting to conduct talks in the math classroom, it’s necessary to have some current work or data to talk about. So, I may want to ask math teachers/leaders to keep self-reflective journals, make a video recording of a lesson, gather some student feedback after a lesson in the form of a survey/questionnaire, or invite two colleagues in to the classroom to observe their teaching. With this information in hand, we can get to talking!

*What practices and actions do we need to take as math leaders to help students develop conceptual understanding? *

*What type of evidence are we colleting or gathering from students to identify the strategies used in the lesson were effective? *

*What strategies are we using to make the mathematics of the lesson clear? (i.e., Teacher is using examples, representations*, and/or *examples to move beyond just showing how to arrive at the answer)*

*What is the depth of our questioning? Do our questioning techniques prompt students to share their thinking/understanding or critique the work of their peers?*

*What strategies are we using to keep students engaged in problem solving when problems are difficult? What steps do we need to take to keep them persevering with the math?*

*What opportunities are we taking to include the mathematical practices, to extend student thinking and/or to develop conceptual understanding? *

These questions have the ability to spark valuable professional conversations around mathematical leaders pedagogical content knowledge. That was the “ah ha” moment for me!

In past years I’ve always gauged my need for PD based on testing data, teacher interest via surveys, talking with principals, and the vision of the Department. However, this year I plan to let my professional learning experiences develop as a result of the conversations had during my “talking about the teaching and learning of math” sessions. What better way to provide valued teacher learning in instructional practice than to let it be the result of teacher inquiry and discussion.

I invite you to join me in this endeavor in your district and let’s share some of our findings. How awesome would it be to have a Math Leaders roundtable devoted to “Conducting Professional Learning Conversations” relative to improving math leaders pedagogical content knowledge.

Wishing everyone a wonderful school year devoted to much math teaching and learning inquiry.

Stephenie Tidwell

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